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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 78-82

The effect of ashwagandhadi granules on physical performance in healthy individuals


Department of Swasthavritta and Yoga, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission11-Apr-2022
Date of Decision31-Oct-2022
Date of Acceptance04-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication12-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
N K Ashitha
Department of Swasthavritta and Yoga, Sri Dharmastala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, BM Road, Thanniruhalla, Hassan - 573 201, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_13_22

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and more specifically, the ability to perform the aspects of sports, occupations, and daily activities. A higher fitness level indicates a better long-term effect of health. Physical fitness is generally achieved through a proper nutrition, moderate physical exercise, hygiene, and sufficient rest. Considering the nutritional aspect of physical fitness, supplements are required to bridge the nutritional gap due to busy work schedule and faulty food habits. Hence, a health supplement is the need for the hour which is tasty, will meet the daily requirements, and provide optimum nutrients for improving the physical fitness.
Materials and Methods: Ashwagandhadi granules, formulated with a combination of food and Rasayana dravyas, consisting of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Ragi (Eleusine coracana), Mudga (Vigna radiata), Jeeraka (E. coracana), and Shunti (Zingiber officinale), can be a promising health supplement. An open-label double-arm control clinical study with convenient sampling and modified wait-listed crossover design was conducted among 23 individuals. While in the study group, they were administered with 20 g of Ashwagandhadi granules with 150 ml milk for a month.
Results: The result revealed a statistically significant change in the Harvard Step Score and VO2 max (z = 3.83, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The administration of Ashwagandhadi granules has a statistically significant effect on physical fitness.

Keywords: Ashwagandhadi granules, Harvard Step Test, physical fitness, VO2 max


How to cite this article:
Ashitha N K, Sukumar BS. The effect of ashwagandhadi granules on physical performance in healthy individuals. Indian J Ayurveda lntegr Med 2022;3:78-82

How to cite this URL:
Ashitha N K, Sukumar BS. The effect of ashwagandhadi granules on physical performance in healthy individuals. Indian J Ayurveda lntegr Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 29];3:78-82. Available from: http://www.ijaim.in/text.asp?2022/3/2/78/363107




  Introduction Top


A state of health and well-being, particularly the ability to perform sports, occupations, and daily activities is referred as Physical fitness[1] Any movement produced by the individual's skeletal muscles, resulting in an energy expenditure is related to physical fitness. Along with providing health benefits, it also enhances the quality of life in individuals. It is the ability to deal with emergencies demanding unusual physical effort and also is the aspects of well being. Fitness is categorized into health and skill-related components. Health component further comprises of cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibility.[2] Proper nutrition, moderate physical exercise, hygiene, and optimal rest helps in achieving physical fitness.[3] Among these, exercise and nutrition are the modifiable factors. Due to the busy work schedule, health is being of less concern and nutritional status is neglected.

Considering the nutritional aspect of physical fitness, in the current era, supplements are the basic necessity to bridge the nutritional gap due faulty diet and busy work schedule. It helps to meet the daily nutritional density tailored to dietary needs. Hence, a health supplement is the need for the hour which is palatable, and provide optimum nutrition for improving the physical fitness.


  Materials and Methods Top


Source of data

Clinically healthy individuals from Outpatient Department of swasthavritta, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, were selected.

Method of collection of data

Individuals, who fulfilled the diagnostic and inclusion criteria, were selected from the Outpatient Department of Swasthavritta, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan.
Table 1: Ingredients of Ashwagandhadi granules

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Table 2: Effect of interventions on quality of life

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Table 3: Effect of interventions on the Harvard Step Test

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Table 4: Effect of interventions on maximum oxygen consumption

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Diagnostic criteria

  • Healthy individuals.


Inclusion criteria

  • Individuals between the age of 18–40 years, irrespective of gender.
  • Individually, not on any supplements
  • Individuals, agreeing to sign the consent form and willing to take Ashwagandhadi granules.


Exclusion criteria

  • Pregnant and lactating women.


Study design

An open-label double-arm control clinical study with crossover design was conducted on 23 individuals who came to the Outpatient Department of Swasthavritta, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan. Initially, they were allocated to the control group. After a period of 1 month, they were shifted to the study group and were administered Ashwagandhadi granules with milk as an after drink.

Plan of the study

Source and authentication of raw drug

Ashwagandha, Shatavari, Ragi, Mudga, Shunti and Jeeraka, were obtained from a local vendor and were validated by Dravyaguna department at Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda, Hassan. These drugs were used to prepare the formulation.

Method of preparation

Preparation of Ashwagandhadi granules

  • Step 1: Mudga and Ragi were soaked in water for sprouting for 12 h
  • Step 2: Later, the sprouted mudga and ragi were dried.
  • Step 3: The dried Mudga and Ragi were pulverised, sieved, and roasted
  • Step 4: The fine powders of Shunti, Jeeraka, Ashwagandha and Shatavari were added to this and mixed to obtain Ashwagandhadi Churna
  • Step 5: This is was later added with Sharkarapaka in a definite proportion to obtain Ashwagandhadi granules.[4]


Preparation of Ashwagandhadi beverage

  • Step 1: 20 g of Ashwagandhadi granules was dissolved in a cup of hot milk (150 ml)
  • Step 2: It was served as Ashwagandhadi beverage.


Assessment criteria

World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF[5]

The World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) is a broader concept which includes the person's physical state, psychological state, social relationships, level of independence, personal beliefs, and his/her relationship with the environment. It provides a measurement of functioning and well-being rather than of diseases and disorders and includes 26 characteristics that quantify physical health, psychological health, social experiences, and the environment.

Harvard Step Test[6]

The individual was made to step up and down on the step or platform (33 cm high) at a rate of 30 steps per min (every 2 sec) for 5 min or until exhaustion. Then was made to sit down immediately on completion of the test, and the total number of heart beats was counted between 1 and 1.5 min, 2 and 2.5 min, and 3 and 3.5 min after finishing.

Scoring: Fitness Index = (100 × test duration in seconds) divided by (2 × sum of heart beats in the recovery period.

VO2 max (maximum oxygen consumption)[7]

The basic information of every individual was recorded. The individual was then asked to walk a distance of 1 mile (1.6 km) over a flat path as quickly as possible without breaking into a jog. The time taken to cover the distance and the heart rate before and after the test was recorded.

Calculation: VO2 = 132.853 − (0.0769 × weight in lb) − (0.3877 × age) + (6.315 × gender) − (3.2649 × walk time in minutes) − (0.156 × heart rate). In case of male, use the number 1; female, use the number 0 for the calculation.

Statistical method

Data were collected using designed case report form. Data were tabulated; Friedman test, Wilcoxon test, MannWhitney U test, paired sample t-test, and independent t-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data.


  Results Top


A total of 52 individuals were screened among which, 27 healthy individuals were allocated to the control group. The same individuals were later shifted to the study group except one dropout. Twenty-three individuals in study group completed the study excluding three dropouts. The WHOQOL-BREF, Harvard Step Score, and VO2 max score were compared in both the groups.

Control group

Statistically significant difference in the Harvard Step Score was recorded at two intervals, i.e., BT (0th day) and AT (31st day), t (25) = 2.470, with P value of 0.021.

Study group

Statistically significant difference in the Harvard Step Score was recorded at two intervals, i. e., BT (0th day) to AT (31st day), t (25) = −4.589, P < 0.001.

To assess homogeneity of the groups, Levene's test for equality of variances was applied. This revealed that the two groups were different (P < 0.05). The results were stated by not presuming the equal variance between the groups. This study found that the individuals who adapted 1 month of Ashwagandhadi granules with milk had a statistically significant increase in physical fitness score (7.9457 ± 8.30337) at the end of the study compared to control group (-2.16 ± 4.45), t (32.74) = −-5.21, P < 0.001.

VO2 max

Control group

Statistically significant difference was recorded in VO2 max at two intervals, i. e., BT (0th day) to AT (31st day), χ2 = 4.50, P = 0.03. For post hoc analysis, Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. Significant improvement in VO2 max in between BT (0th day) and AT (31st day) (Z = −2.12, P = 0.03) was noted.

Study group

Statistically significant difference was recorded in VO2 max at two intervals, i.e., BT (0th day) to AT (31st day), χ2 = 17.00, P < 0.0001 were recorded. For post hoc analysis, Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. Ashwagandhadi granules showed significance in improving VO2 max in differences between BT (0th day) and AT (31st day) (Z = −3.82, P < 0.0001).

Comparison of results between control group and study group using MannWhitney U test showed statistically significant increase in VO2 max after intervention was seen in the study group compared to control group, U = 136.50, Z = −3.40, with P = 0.001.


  Discussion Top


World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF

The individuals of the study group had higher scores among physical, psychological domains and no effect in social and environmental domains. The quality of life of the study group was improved compared to the control group.

Research suggests that Ashwagandha has the ability to reduce increased blood urea nitrogen, lactic acid and corticosterone in response to stress. It also reduces the tendency of dopamine receptors in the brain to get activated under stress.[8]

Harvard Step Score and VO2 max

The VO2 max or maximum oxygen consumption and the Harvard Step Score represent a long-term aerobic and cardiovascular endurance. Endurance training helps to maximize endurance performance by increasing the volume of oxygen available, which can be delivered for utilization by working muscle.[9] Long-term strenuous exercises lead to release of free radicals, which may cause damage of varied amount to different systems of human body. Stress can cause increased peroxidation of lipids, by decreasing levels of antioxidants enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase.[10]

The physicochemical standardization and phytochemical analysis of Ashwagandhadi granules were performed at Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara center research in Ayurveda and Allied sciences.[11] It demonstrated the presence of flavonoids. Flavonoids are very effective in preventing lipid peroxidation, and lipid peroxidation is responsible for various diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation, with aging.[10]

Several studies conducted on the effect of Ashwagandha on VO2 max in healthy individuals also suggest a statistically significant effect of Ashwagandha in improving physical fitness.[12],[13] In a study to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L] Dunal) in cardiorespiratory endurance in apparently healthy adults, showed a statistically significant improvement in VO2 max, cardiorespiratory endurance, and QOL in apparently healthy adults. A study conducted on the effect of Shatavari on physical performance through fitness test in the healthy volunteers also reported a statistically significant increase in their physical fitness index and VO2 max.[2]

In the present study, there were no adverse effects observed; hence, Ashwagandhadi granules are safe for administration.

The lifestyle, habits, heredity, nutritional intake, physical fitness level, and psychological and physiological variables are beyond control is the weakness of the study.


  Conclusion Top


Ashwagandhadi granules administration showed a significant improvement in physical and psychological domains of WHOQOL-BREF indicating improvement in quality of life. It also showed a statistically significant increase in the Harvard Step Score and VO2 max indicating the betterment of physical fitness. Hence, it can be a promising health supplement in enhancing physical fitness.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Chulet R, Pradhan P. A review on Rasayana. Pharmacogn Rev 2009;3:229.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Katti A, Chate V, Dev R. Evaluation of effect of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) on physical performance through fitness test. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:1486-94.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bisht D, Sharma YK, Mehra BL. A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of Pippali Rasayana in respiratory disorders. AYU 2009;300:337.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kumar N, Sukumar BS. Physicochemical and standardization of calci malt preparation. Int J Bot Stud 2021;6:689-92.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
World Health Organization's. Quality of Life group: WHOQOL-BREF Introduction. Administration and Scoring. Geneva: Field Trial Version; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Brouha L, Health CW, Graybiel A. Step test simple method of measuring physical fitness for hard muscular work in adult men. Rev Can Biol 1943;2:86.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sukumar BS, tripathy TB, Shashirekha HK, Shetty SK. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifers [l.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2 max test) in healthy subjects. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2021;12:911-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gupta GL, Rana AC. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): A review. Pharmacogn Rev 2007;1:129-36.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ashitha NK, Sukumar BS. Evaluation of efficacy of Ashwagandhadi granules in improving physical fitness through VO2 max (maximum oxygen consumption) in healthy subjects. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2022;11:89-95.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: An overview. J Nutr Sci 2016;5:e47.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ashitha NK, Sukumar BS. Phyto physico chemical profile of ashwagandhadichoorna. Int J Bot Stud 2021;6:892-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Tiwari S, Gupta SK, Pathak AK. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera dunal.) root extract in improving cardiorespiratory endurance and recovery in healthy athletic adults. J Ethnopharmacol 2021;272:113929.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Choudhary B, Shetty A, Langade DG. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults. Ayu 2015;36:63-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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