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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 83-87

Quality assessment of market samples of ashokarishta: A polyherbal formulation


Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, KLE Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidhyalaya and PG Research Centre, A Constituent Unit of KAHER, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission20-Apr-2022
Date of Decision19-Oct-2022
Date of Acceptance19-Oct-2022
Date of Web Publication12-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Rajeshwari V Kamat
Professor, Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, KLE Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidhyalaya and PG Research Centre, a Constituent Unit of KAHER, Belagavi, Karntaka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_18_22

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  Abstract 


Background: Ashokarista is an Ayurvedic herbal remedy with Ashoka as the main ingredient for rejuvenating the female reproductive system and blood. Because of the rapid commercialization of Ayurvedic products, assurances of their safety and efficacy have become critical. Therefore, to achieve this, the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India advocates the implementation of various Quality Control Parameters, such as Organoleptic Characters, Physico-chemical characteristics, Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis, and Microbial tests.
Aim and Objective: To evaluate the quality standards of Ashokarishta's selected marketed samples.
Materials and Methods: Quality control parameters such as organoleptic characteristics, physicochemical analysis, and microbial contamination studies were applied to all samples collected.
Results: The current findings show that the samples differ in several analytical parameters.
Conclusion: Sample A was found to be safe and had the highest concentration of gallic acid of the five samples tested.

Keywords: Arista, Ashokarista, physicochemical parameters, quality-control parameters


How to cite this article:
Fadnis SS, Kamat RV. Quality assessment of market samples of ashokarishta: A polyherbal formulation. Indian J Ayurveda lntegr Med 2022;3:83-7

How to cite this URL:
Fadnis SS, Kamat RV. Quality assessment of market samples of ashokarishta: A polyherbal formulation. Indian J Ayurveda lntegr Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 29];3:83-7. Available from: http://www.ijaim.in/text.asp?2022/3/2/83/363108




  Introduction Top


Arishta is an Ayurvedic self-generated dosage form. In Classics, Ashokarishta is explained in Bhaishajya Ratnavali[1] and Sahasra yoga.[2] Ashokarishta is mainly practiced in all Gynecological disorders. Many research published articles prove the efficacy of Ashokarishta in indications such as menopausal syndrome, hormonal imbalance, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, uterine fibroid, and abortions.

In the present scenario, the genuineness of the different market samples of Ashokarishta formulation is explained through quality control parameters. Ayurvedic formulary of India is a book that explained about basic analysis of individual formulation with accepted values. The tests explained for Ashokarishta[3] in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India are organoleptic characters, pH, specific gravity, total solids, alcohol content, reducing sugars, nonreducing sugars, methanol test, TLC, gallic acids estimation, and microbial limit test.

Aim and Objective

  1. To evaluate the quality standards of different marketed Ashokarista samples.



  Materials and Methods Top


Five samples of Ashokarishta were collected for the study. The samples were labeled as Sample-A, Sample-B, Sample-C, Sample-D, and Sample-E. All the samples were subjected to quality control parameters such as organoleptic characters, physicochemical analysis, and microbial contamination studies. The following methods were adopted for the Analysis.

Organoleptic characteristics

Organoleptic characters include the identification of odor, taste, color, and consistency of all samples of Ashokarishta.

Physicochemical parameters

Physicochemical parameters include pH, specific gravity, total solids, alcohol content, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, and the methanol test. The following procedures are performed for all five samples of Ashokarishta as per API.

Estimation of pH

The digital pH meter was used to estimate the pH of all samples after calibration with a buffer solution of 4, 7, 9. The three readings of the individual sample were taken and the mean is noted as a pH of the sample.[4]

Estimation of specific gravity, alcohol content, total solids, reducing sugar,and nonreducing sugar

Values of specific gravity,[5] alcohol content,[6] total solids,[7] reducing sugar,[8] and nonreducing sugar[8] were estimated as per API Vol. 2.

Test for methanol

The preliminary presence or absence of methanol was performed by flame test. The few drops of the sample were subjected to flame. The blue flame indicates an absence of methanol and the yellow flame indicates the presence of methanol. The result was noted for all samples.[9]

Estimation of thin layer chromatography

Sample preparation

In a glass beaker, a little quantity of dried total solid sample was added. Drop-by-drop methanol was added with constant stirring, till it becomes a homogenous solution (stationary phase).

Mobile phase

Mobile phase was prepared with toluene, ethylene acetate, and acetic acid in the ratio of 5:4:1.

Procedure

Prepared sample was applied on a TLC plate measuring, 10 cm × 4 cm. Prepare capillary for spotting of solution (stationary phase). TLC plate in a charged chamber and wait for 15 min.[10]

Visualization

The plates were placed in an ultraviolet chamber and observed under a short wave and long wave. The rf values were calculated using the formula.

Retention factor = Distance traveled by spot/distance traveled by solution

Estimation of gallic acids

The total phenols content of plant was determined with the Folin– Ciocalteu colorimetric method, gallic acid was used as standard.

Calibration

Gallic acid was dissolved in methanol. The dilution concentration ranges from 6.25 to 100 μg/ml.

Reaction solutions

The Sample extract stock solution was prepared with 10 fold to dilute Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and 7.5% sodium carbonate. Allowed to stand for 30 min at room temperature.

Procedure

The blank was prepared similarly with methanol. The absorbance of the sample and standard was measured at 760 nm with a Shimadzu UV-1800 spectrophotometer. The instrument was calibrated with gallic acid standard absorbance versus concentration. The determination of total gallic acid concentration in the sample was determined using a slope equation. The results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract.

Microbial load and limit test

The values of microbial load[11] and limit[11] test of samples were estimated as per I. P.


  Observations Top


[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4] show the observations made during the procedures.
Table 1: Observations of total solids

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Table 2: Observations of alcohol content

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Table 3: Observations of reducing sugar

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Table 4: Observations of nonreducing sugar

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On opening: Hissing sound and froth appearance were observed in sample D and Sample E.


  Results Top


The Quality control parameters results are noted from [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10].
Table 5: List of the result of organoleptic characteristics

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Table 6: List of results of physicochemical parameters

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Table 7: List of results of thin-layer chromatography

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Table 8: List of results of gallic acids

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Table 9: List of microbial load test

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Table 10: List of microbial limit test

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  Discussion Top


In conventional systems of medicine, the drugs are primarily distributed in numerous forms. Therefore, medicines ought to be authentic and free from microbial contamination that assures their safety.

The present results have shown that the samples vary in several analytical parameters. The variant of outcomes inside the analytical parameters can be because of the variant in factors such as a supply of herbs, series of drugs, approach of preparation, units, and equipment used for preparation.[12] Hissing on opening and an Amla Rasa-like taste indicate that sample D and sample E are not in the form of Arishta, but have become Shukti Kalpana. The variation in specific gravity values of Sample A and Sample E may be due to temperature variations. The reducing and nonreducing values show that Sample A and Sample D required more fermentation time than other samples. The presence of methanol in Arishta is not safe for consumption and the result shows that only Sample A does not contain methanol, the rest of the samples contain methanol. The gallic acid estimate shows that Sample A has the highest concentration of gallic acid and Sample D has no gallic acid. The results of the other parameters are in the usual limit range.


  Conclusion Top


This study highlights the importance of analytical parameters to know the safety and efficacy of the formulation. There are few industrial organizations in India that conduct quality assessments of herbal medicinal products. The results of the present study mean that of the commercially available samples, only Sample A is safe because it contains no methanol and is effective because it contains a high concentration of gallic acids. The present study reveals that Sample A is more therapeutically potent than other selected market samples.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Das SG. Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Chaukhamba Prakashana, Pradararogachikitsa Prakaranam. Sholka 114-118. Ch. 66, New Delhi, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhawan Series; 2006. p.1038.   Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sharma R. Sahasrayogam, Arishta Prakarana, New Delhi, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana; 2014. p. 159-60.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Government of India, Ministry of Ayush. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part 1, 1:5., Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy, New Delhi; 2006. p. 10-2.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayush. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Appendix-3. Part 1. Vol. VI. New Delhi; 2008. p. 325.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayush. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Appendix-3. Part 1. Vol. VI. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy, New Delhi; 2008. p. 324-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayush. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Appendix-3. Part 1. Vol. VI. New Delhi, Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy; 2008. p. 337-40.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayush. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Appendix-3. Part 1. Vol. VI. New Delhi, Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy; 2008. p. 332.   Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayush. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Appendix-5, Part 1. Vol. VI. New Delhi, Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy; 2008. p. 373-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Government of India, Ministry of Ayush. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part 1, 1:5. New Delhi, Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy; 2008, p. 11.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sciencing.com. Available from: https://sciencing.com/test-alcohol-methanol-8714279.html. [Last accessed on 2022 Mar].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Schwalbe R, Moore LS, Goodwin AC. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Protocols. Ch. 3. Disk diffusion test and Gradient Methodologies. CRC Press; 2007. p. 53-74.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Sharma RK, Ansari MS. Standardization of different marketed brands of Ashokarishta: Polyherbal formulations. World J Pharm Res 2020;9:1777-81.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Observations
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
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