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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-7

A self-rating scale to measure states of tridosha in children


1 Department of Yoga and Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Yoga and Life Sciences, Arogyadhama, SVYASA, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission18-Feb-2021
Date of Decision25-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance02-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication17-Apr-2021

Correspondence Address:
Suchitra S Patil
Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Eknath Bhavan, No. 19, Gavipuram Circle, Kempegowda Nagar, Bengaluru - 560 019, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijaim.ijaim_1_21

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  Abstract 


Background: In Western psychology, inventories are available for state (temporary change) and trait (which is the basis of personality-character) aspects of personality. Ayurveda inventories for measuring tridosha (which is the basis of both trait and state of personality) in children have been developed and standardized, which pertains to trait aspect of personality. There is no scale to assess the state aspects of tridosha in children.
Methods: The design of the study was descriptive type. Sampling design was purposive sampling. The 6-item Tridosha State Scale for Children (TSSC) was developed on the basis of translation of the Sanskrit verses describing the states of vāta, pitta, and kapha prakriti, which represent the temporary change in tridosha and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Āyurveda experts and three psychologists who helped in judging the items and assessed. The study was carried out in Bapuji School, Davangere. The scale was administered on 108 children in the age group of 8–12 years (mean age: 9.75 ± 1.30). Moreover, for 30 children, the scores are compared with Caraka Child Personality Inventory (CCPI) – a self-rating scale to measure the trait aspects of prakriti).
Results: TSSC was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for Vataja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja scales was 0.826, 0.885, and 0.911, respectively. Scores on Vātaja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja scales were inversely correlated, suggesting that they are mutually exclusive. Correlation of scores on subscales with CCPI was 0.97, 0.92, and 0.94, respectively, for Vata, Pitta, and Kapha.
Conclusions: The state of tridosha in children can be measured reliably by this instrument. This can be utilized by clinicians and researchers to check the immediate effect of the interventions.

Keywords: Health, state, tridosha


How to cite this article:
Patil SS, Nagarathna R, Nagendra H R. A self-rating scale to measure states of tridosha in children. Indian J Ayurveda lntegr Med 2021;2:3-7

How to cite this URL:
Patil SS, Nagarathna R, Nagendra H R. A self-rating scale to measure states of tridosha in children. Indian J Ayurveda lntegr Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 May 6];2:3-7. Available from: http://www.ijaim.com/text.asp?2021/2/1/3/313992




  Introduction Top


According to Western psychologists, Allport, Cattell, and Guilford personality is made up of traits which are the dispositions or a fundamental construct that accounts for behavior regularity or consistency.[1] Trait is a permanent character in one's personality, while state is a temporary change in personality or reaction of an individual to a situation.

Ayurveda classics proclaim tridosha (Vata, Pitta, and Kapha metabolic principles maintaining the functions of the body) forms trait (character) and state (temporary -mood) aspects of the personality. Accordingly, scriptures quote the state of tridosha changes in a day, afternoon, night, during, before, and after digestion. Detailed description of character of personality formed by tridosha is explained.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]

Statistical model of dosha prakriti based on analysis of a questionnaire has been developed.[10] An analysis of tridosha physiology, linking it to process of cellular physiology, has been carried out.[11],[12] Similarly, a genetic basis of tridosha constitution has been postulated.[13],[14],[15] Importance of doshas in health and treatment methods has been discussed.[16] A study comparing the Āyurveda personality concepts and Western psychology concepts is available.[17] Ayurveda tridosha theory and four elements of Buddhist medicine and Chinese humorology have been compared.[18],[19] Importance of Prakriti in aging has been discussed.[20] Differences in cardiovascular responses to postural changes, exercise, and cold pressor test of different prakriti have been explained.[21] Left and right hemisphere chemical dominance has been observed with predominance of doshas.[22] A scale to measure tridoshas in psychotic patients has been developed.[23] A parent-rating scale and self-rating scales are developed and standardized to measure the trait aspects of tridosha in children.[23],[24] Scales to assess the state and trait aspects of personality and anxiety are developed and standardized according to Western psychology concepts.[25],[26],[27]

However, a simple self-rating scale to assess the state aspects of tridosha in personality of children according to Āyurveda comprehensive concepts is not available. This may point to observe the immediate changes in tridoshas after the intervention.

The objective of the present study was to develop a self-rating scale “Tridosha State Scale for Children” (TSSC) to assess the mood state of the children pertaining to respective doshas and to correlate with the trait prakriti scale Caraka Child Personality Inventory (CCPI).[24] The reliability of subscales was supported by Cronbach's alpha co-efficient ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 and split-half analysis ranging from 0.60 to 0.66.


  Methods Top


”TSSC” was developed based on six important Sanskrit characteristics from nine authoritative ancient Ayurveda texts describing characteristics typical of state aspect of Vātaja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja Prakṛti. Twenty-five items in Sanskrit and translation in English were presented to ten Āyurveda experts for content validity. They were asked to judge the correctness of each statement and to check (1) if the items constructed represented acceptable translation of the Sanskrit in the original texts and (2) whether the items selected represent the state aspects of Vātaja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja Prakṛti?

All the experts agreed on all items. Finally, six questions of TSSC were framed. The scale was again presented to five Āyurveda experts and two psychologists who reviewed the format of this scale and recommended a two-point scoring (0 and 1); this was adopted in the final CCPI. Suggestions in the phrasing of questions were also incorporated.

The final TSSC has six items – two items for Vāta state, 2 items for Pitta state, and 2 items for Kapha state subscales. The scale was to be answered by the children [Appendix 1].

Data collection and analysis

Item difficulty level was analyzed by administering the scale on 108 children in the age group of 8–12 years.

For testing the reliability and validity, the final scale of 6 items was administered on 30 children who were the students of Bapuji School in Davangere, Karnataka, India, of both sexes with an age range of 8–12 years.

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-16.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA) was used for data analysis. The data were analyzed for reliability. Cronbach's alpha test was applied for reliability analysis. Discriminant validity was analyzed by Pearson's correlation analysis. This was done to check the degree of association between Vātaja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja scores.

[Table 1] gives the demographic data of the children. Sixty-eight boys were there and 40 girls were there (age: 9.75 ± 1.30).
Table 1: Demographic data

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  Results Top


Content validity

Among seven experts, who served as judges, all six questions were agreed by four to five experts.

Internal consistency

An analysis of the data collected from 30 children showed that the Cronbach's alpha is at an acceptable range.[28]

[Table 2] gives the reliability coefficients of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha subscales ranging above 0.8.
Table 2: Reliability coefficients of the tridosha subscales

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[Table 3] gives the correlation between Vata, Pitta, and Kapha subscales. Vata has correlated significantly negatively with Pitta and Kapha. Pitta has correlated significantly negatively with Kapha.[Table 4] gives the correlations of subscales of TSSC and CCPI. Vata scale of TSSC correlated highly significantly with vata scale of CCPI. Similarly, Pitta and Kapha scales of TSSC correlated highly significantly with Pitta and Kapha subscales of CCPI.
Table 3: Correlation among subscales

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Table 4: Correlation with Caraka Child Personality Inventory (trait scale)

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  Discussion Top


The present study has described the development and initial standardization of a self-rating scale TSSC to measure the state of tridosha with six items.

The reliability of subscales was supported by Cronbach's alpha co-efficient ranging from 0.800 to 0.911. This supported the consistency of the scale[29] [Table 2]. Correlation between Vātaja, Pittaja, and Kaphaja scale scores was negative, suggesting discriminant validity [Table 3]. Correlation values range from 0.332 to 0.657, significance at 99% confidence for all correlations. This suggests that the three subscales measure different aspects of state of personality of the children. Correlation with CCPI[24] supported criterion related validity[30] [Table 4].

The strength of the study was that it is the first attempt to standardize a self-rating scale to measure the state aspects of Prakriti of the children, which is an important step to analyze the immediate effect of an intervention.[1],[9] This scale was developed with an intention to check the immediate effect of yoga and meditation on tridoshas importantly. Although published scales are available to assess the Prakriti of the children,[23],[24] there are no scales to assess the state of tridosha. Hence, TSSC can be potentially used to measure the mood state because of predominant doshas in children.

Limitations of the study

Although TSSC is a reliable valid instrument, it has not addressed test–retest reliability. The study should be done on more number of samples and norms should be established.


  Conclusions Top


A TSSC is a reliable and valid instrument. Researchers can employ this instrument to assess the immediate effect of diet, yoga, and personality development program on the prakriti of the children.

Acknowledgment

We thank Dr. Kishore, Dr. Aarti Jagannathan, Dr. Uma, and Āyurveda experts in Hubli, Bengaluru Āyurveda College, for their support and participation in the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


  Appendix 1 Top


Tridosha State Scale for Children

Instructions: There are no correct or wrong answers. Fill how you are feeling right now?

  1. I am active Yes/No
  2. I am upset Yes/No
  3. I am sweating Yes/No
  4. I am tensed Yes/No
  5. I feel enthusiastic Yes/No
  6. I feel silence Yes/No




 
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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